Satellite Communication

Satellite Satellite is an object that orbits or rotate around another object in a particular path Orbit. Our solar system is a good example. How satellite stable in orbit? A satellite remains in orbit because the centrifugal force caused by…
Artificial Intelligence

Intelligence Intelligence is the ability to think, learn and Understand. It has four steps, Observation Think (Compare) Understand. Response Artificial Intelligence If intelligence is produced artificially in machines called Artificial Intelligence.
Infrared IR

Discovery of Infrared In 1800, William Herschel conducted an experiment measuring the difference in temperature between the colors in the visible spectrum. Infrared is a section of invisible light on the electromagnetic spectrum. It’s a form of radiant heat that can…
Twisted Pair Cable

Twisted Pair Cable Guided metallic transmission media. Twisted pair cable is a form of wiring in which two conductors are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources and crosstalk from neighboring conductors. Unshielded…
ISM Frequency Band

ISM Frequency Band The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) had originally reserved a portion of the RF spectrum globally for industrial, scientific and medical applications. Such as process heating, microwave oven, and medical diathermy equipment etc. The main feature of the…
FTTH Fiber to the Home

FTTx is a access network technology that uses optical fiber directly from the central point to the Home. FTTx offers triple play services voice, video and data. Optical distribution network (ODN) architecture.. FTTx can be categorized into different FTTC  =…
How Electric Bulb work

Electric Bulb Convert electric energy into light energy. It is a transducer. When electricity passed through its filament, It starts to glow. Works on Law of conservation of energy. We will discuss two main components Working of Tungsten Filament. Why…
Transmission medium

Transmission Media It is a path through which information signal travels from source to destination. It is also known as Transmission Line or Transmission channel. It is further divided into two categories Guided Media. Unguided Media. Guided / Bounded /Wired…
Noise

Noise Noise or Electrical Noise is any unwanted electrical signal interferes or distorts the information signal. It affects the signal inside or outside the equipment and generates error. It affects both analog and digital signal and quality of information signal…
Modulation and Demodulation

Modulation Modulation is the process of changing one or more properties of the carrier signal in proportion with the information signal. In modulation, some parameter of the carrier wave (such as amplitude, frequency or phase ) is varied in accordance…
Need of Modulation

Size of Antenna Signals are transmitted via EM waves. EM waves are transmitted by using an antenna. What will be the size of antenna? Antena height must be multiple of λ/4 . Where λ = c/f. λ is inversely proportional…
Subscriber Identity Module SIM

SMART card / SIM Card SMART Card It is an electronic circuit which is used to provide information about its holder. Subscriber Identity Module. In case of Mobile SIM card it enables a mobile device to communicate over telecom network.…
WiFi direct

WiFi Direct WiFi Direct™ enables devices to establish a direct WiFi connection over which they can send and receive files. WiFi Alliance developed the WiFi Direct standard. It is ad hoc networking and enable devices to connect to each other…
Bluetooth and Ad hoc Network

    Ad hoc Network. Ad Hoc network is a decentralized wireless network used for communication for a limited time period.   Piconet. A piconet is a Ad hoc using Bluetooth technology. One device act as a Master and others…
Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Computer Program A program is a set of instructions following the rules of the chosen language. Without programs, computer is useless.It contains a list of instructions that tell the computer what to do and how to do.…
Virus

Computer Virus A virus is a malware/harmful software which infect a computer function. Malware = malicious + Software .A computer virus reside on a host computer. A virus attaches itself to a file. A file containing a virus is called infected file.…