It is a transmission method. This method is used in optical fibre transmission system called SDH system. We have already discussed the basic concepts of the transmission system. This video will give you the basic concept of SDH.
SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
EU and Japan standard.
A standard for telecommunication transport defined by ITU-T.
Following concepts are required to get the concept.
- PCM Pulse code Modulation.
- Communication system Fundamentals.
- T1 and E1 lines.
- PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy.
System Clock synchronisation.
All systems clocks are synchronised with a master clock. All clocks may be out of phase but run at the same frequency.
All system clocks run at the same frequency with a defined precision.
System clocks are not synchronised. Tx and Rx have an independent clock.
- Powerful Management (Overhead Structure to handle with multiple signal levels and performing management tasks.)
- Standard Optical Interfaces.
- Standard Digital Format.
- Vendor Independent.
- Synchronous Digital Structure.
- Easy Cross connection.
- Easy add and drop (SDH performs single stage multiplexing).
- Reliability (automatic repair mechanism).
- Direct access to low-order tributaries.
- Compatible with transport PDH signals.
- Supports various topologies ring, bus, star and etc.
- It provides both electrical and optical input interfaces.
- Switching protection is offered by rings.
- Provisioning of services to preferred routes.
- Interface existing PDH signals.
- NMS facility.
STM-1 synchronous transport module level 1.
- 270 column.
- 9 rows.
- Row by Row Transmission.
- Time period is 125us.
- Each byte represents 64Kbps.
- ITU-T recommendation G.707.
Time period is 125us
Each byte represent 64Kbps
Total byte= 270*9=2430
Each byte=08 bits
Total bits = 2430*8=19440
Data rate of one byte = 8*8000=64Kbps
Data rate of frame =19440*8000=155Mb
The basic rate of transmission 155.54 Mbps. SDH hierarchy based on multiple of 155.54Mbps.
Higher order rate is the exact multiple of the lower order rate. It is known as a synchronous digital hierarchy.
POH Path Overhead.
Path overhead is a monitoring and alarm information field. Path overhead size varies with container size. PoH travel with the container over the path.
Virtual container = POH + Container.
VC 11, VC 12, VC 2, VC 3, VC 4.
SOH Section Overhead.
Overhead has basically the same job everywhere( Management, Control, Alarm and etc). In SDH network, Overheads are coupled with network architecture to simplify the task.
Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH).
It indicates the first byte of a virtual container. Its function becomes important in the case of asynchronous case.
Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH).
SDH Signal Mapping.
It accepts data from pdh level signals.It performs bit stuffing to adjust data rate.
Virtual Container VC.
It has container and POH. POH contains alarm information, Performance and Some management information.
Tributary Unit TU.
VC + Pointer.
Tributary unit Group TUG.
Administrative Unit AU.
Administrative Unit Group AUG.
SDH Network Element.
It regenerates the attenuated signal.
Terminal Multiplexer or Path Terminal Element (PTE).
It is end point device.It combines the lower level of signals into a STM-N level.
In-ring setup, it performs the add and drop of multiple levels Of signals.
Digital Cross Connect (DXX).
It performs the switching function for various sizes of containers.